Principle forces within a continuum

The Belgium / Dutch scientist Simon Stevin (1548 – 1620) was one of the first to recognize that the atmosphere, all matter above sea-level, is an integral part of planet earth. Not many people realize that we live deep inside the planet. All life on planet earth can only exist because it is immersed in a fluid. A gas (air) is a liquid.

In physics, forces are classified as conservative and non-conservative forces. The definition of these forces is subject for improvement in case the object in motion is seen as a ‘machine’ or ‘converter’.

A proposal for improvement might be that conservative forces hold their potential force or progressive force independent of motion and position. Where non-conservative forces will lose their potential force under Newtons third law while an equal force eliminates its potential and an equilibrium of force is established.

Great examples of conservative forces are the (so far unnamed) outside force that is the result of the position of the continuum in a void. This force can also be described as a continuous elastic force. Magnetism is another example here. Strong nuclear force (interaction) is also an example of continuous elasticity of matter, a force that is always conserved.

Forces that work on bodies and change the position of that body until it complies with Newtons third law and can be regarded as non-conservative forces. In this case of non-conservative force, the body always needs additional force that is working on the body in order to change in position.

Non-conservative forces always stay present and continuously keep working on the body. This natural phenomenon is widely used by engineers in constructions. It is the ruling principle in the so called ‘platform constructions’. A practice that is probably one of the oldest construction methods. Statics is the branch of mechanics concerned with bodies at rest and forces in equilibrium.

From this point of view, we can conclude that the law of conservation of force is valid. And that part of these forces is not always directly available for performing work and motion. Although in statics we can always rely on the presence of force.

We can also conclude that field density is a condition for the existence of force. In other words, force is completely related to the existence of a continuum.

All forces in a continuum are in one or another way related to each other. The force without a name, I shall call ‘primo mobile’. It is a name that was also used by the famous Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel (Alkmaar 1572 – Londen 1633)

  1. Primo mobile, (mother force)
    1. a.i) Buoyancy, levitation and gravitation
    2. a.ii) Hydrostatic paradox
    3. a.iii) Vacuum force
      1. (a.iii.1) Cavitation
  2. Strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force
    1. a) Elastic force from chemical conversion
    2. b) Elastic force from state of excitement by thermal forcing
  3. Centrifugal force, centripetal force, gyroscopic force, inertia
  4. Boundary layer force
  5. Magnetism

Primo mobile, mother force

The primo mobile is responsible for keeping heavenly bodies in their spherical or torus shape. There is not sufficient reason to assume that heavenly bodies have their shapes by coincidence. Flat-earthers might be disappointed about this. This strong outward force works evenly and independent of the position of the planet towards the sun, on the outer surface of the continuum.

There is sufficient reason to accept that both levitation and gravitation are the equivalent of negative and positive buoyancy. Archimedes law is undisputed and might gain on importance in future natural science. These forces on bodies and its acceleration in case of motion are ruled by Newtons second law.

The hydrostatic paradox was first discovered by Simon Stevin. Simon Stevin stated that pressure in for instance a column of fluid only depends on depth and not on shape. Many people see in Stevin’s findings the discovery of the seventh simple (hydraulic) machine. His discovery was an aspect of his research into the design and construction of ships hulls and water locks.

Simon Stevin: The pressure in D-C is equal weather it is through A or E

Simon Stevin: The pressure in D-C is equal weather it is through A or E

The pressure in a, b and c is equal

The pressure in a, b and c is equal

It is not easy to explain why the pressure in and weightless electromagnetic field or in a composition of different field builds up in function of its height under the third law of Newton.

Vacuum force

The Magdeburg hemispheres are a pair of large copper hemispheres, with mating rims. They were used to demonstrate the power of atmospheric pressure. When the rims were sealed with grease and the air was pumped out, the sphere contained a vacuum and could not be pulled apart by teams of horses. The Magdeburg hemispheres were invented by German scientist and mayor of Magdeburg, Otto von Guericke, to demonstrate the air pump that he had invented, and the concept of atmospheric pressure. The first artificial vacuum had been produced a few years earlier by Evangelista Torricelli and had inspired Guericke to design the world’s first vacuum pump, which consisted of a piston and cylinder with one-way flap valves. The hemispheres became popular in physics lectures as an illustration of the strength of air pressure and are still used in education. A pair of the original hemispheres are preserved in the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

The absolute vacuum of a void is an extremely strong force. We do not notice the ‘primo mobile’ force in our daily lives because the force works evenly in opposite direction and therefor becomes neutral inside a continuum. Because of the motion of the continuum and therefor a continuous change of exposure of the surface towards the sun the continuum is subject to thermal forcing. Thermal forcing is the cause of motion of ocean water (tidal wave) and is one of the causes of the motion of air.

When at any place in the continuum a void is created, like with the Magdeburg hemispheres, the primo mobile force changes into the opposite direction and start working on the outer surface of that small void.

Cavitation is a special phenomenon within a continuum. Cavitation is an interaction between the inertia of matter and the acceleration of the same matter. If liquid matter temporarily can’t follow the acceleration, tiny little voids will occur. The pistol shrimp uses this natural phenomenon as a weapon.

Cavities are no bubbles in a fluid. Cavities are true empty spaces (voids) who have the tendency to be instable and to implode against a surface. At the point of total collapse, the temperature of the vapor within the bubble may be several thousand Kelvins, and the pressure several hundred atmospheres.

Non-inertial cavitation is the process in which a bubble in a liquid is forced to oscillate due to energy input. This form of cavitation causes significantly less erosion than inertial cavitation and is often used for the cleaning of delicate materials, such as silicon wafers.

Strong nuclear and weak nuclear force

Weak nuclear force or weak nuclear interaction is the tendency of subatomic fields in a composition, or a body of matter, to have a preference for changing position in adjacent, competing subatomic fields. These forces only act on subatomic distances and are coursing decay of atoms. The principle is applied in photovoltaic cells.

The strong nuclear force or interaction is much stronger than electromagnetic force. It is the strongest conservative force that we know of. Meaning that the interaction can’t be found in electromagnetism. The most acceptable explanation is that matter on a subatomic level is composed out of electromagnetic fields that are divided by empty space, voids. This theory was supported by Professor Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. It is also the central theory in material science, structural engineering and continuum mechanics (materials).

There is a strong relationship between the strong nuclear interaction and the ‘elasticity’ of matter in any state of excitement (solid, fluidic, gaseous)

Elastic force from chemical conversion

Fast decomposition of matter can be accomplished by applying pressure or by the introduction of oxygen and ignition. Decomposition leaves us whit a range of new types of matter. Conservation of mass have to be applied in this process.

The result of forced decomposition is the release of a substantial amount of heat and a fast and spontaneous increase of volume, expansion. Expansion is an elastic force. These three dimensional forces are applied in combustion engines that convert them into rotary forces for machines. A vehicle is regarded to be a machine. Decomposition of matter or combustion can also be used for thermal forcing of for instance water. It is a method that is widely used for the generation of electricity.

Elastic force from state of excitement by thermal forcing

Nuclear decomposition and fossil fuels act with the same purpose, generating heat for thermal forcing. Thermal forcing of water results in fast expansion due the higher state of excitement and the conversion of water into steam.

Most people wrongly believe that we have left the steam era behind us. Today steam is still powering the world.

The expansion forces that become available from the expansion are used to create rotary motion for driving machines, most of the time steam turbines and generators.

Steam is also widely used in industries for heating purposes in production processes.

Centrifugal force, centripetal force, gyroscopic force, inertia

Rotating frames of matter are probably the most interesting and most mysterious objects in physics. Centrifugal force promotes matter to leave the frame in the direction as if the circumference was stretched in a straight line. Centripetal force in the contrary promotes the matter to compress towards the center of the circular frame, probably trough a spiral path as if the circumference of the frame was bent towards the center.

Rotating frames can be both liquid and solid. The gyroscope is an example of a solid rotating frame.

Imperial College London Professor Eric Laithwaite is known as the ‘father of Maglev’ for the invention of the Maglev (magnetic levitation) rail system and for his development of the linear induction motor.

Professor Laithwaite was invited by the Royal Institution for a talk. He decided to lecture about gyroscopes, a subject he was inspired to by Alex Jones. In his lectures Professor Laithwaite suggested that Newton’s laws of motion could not account for the behavior of gyroscopes. The members of the Royal Institution rejected his ideas and his lectures were not published. Although his ideas are supported by experiments, he later acknowledged that gyroscopes behave fully in accord with Newtonian mechanics.

It is a matter of fact that gyroscopes are widely applied because they do not follow the principles of Newtonian mechanics. It would be incredible difficult to control an aircraft without an artificial horizon or attitude indicator (AI). The heart of the AI is a gyroscope.

Another magnificent example of the behavior of a rotating frame is the Ranque Hilsch vortex tube. Centripetal force is driving the gasses towards the center.

The incredible speed of over 250.000 rpm inside the tube can be achieved due to a complete absence of friction of the gas and the wall of the tube. The continuous input of gas in the circumference of the RH vortex tube promotes the rotation.

The pressure differences between the outer and inner layers might be responsible for splitting the gas in a hot and cold exit. Physicists have no explanation for this phenomenon.

The Tesla boundary layer turbine can also be regarded as a machine based on a rotating frame. Tesla claimed that the steam version of his device would achieve around 95% efficiency.

Sir Isaac Newton believed that the course of heavenly motion of planets should be sought in centripetal force (center seeking). It is the force that makes a body follow a curved path. A curved path is not the same as a circular path, and that makes centripetal force even more mysterious. Professor Eric Laithwaite came to the same conclusion. Isaac Newton as well as Christiaan Huygens performed research into centripetal force.

The Austrian scientist and natural philosopher Viktor Schauberger was the ultimate expert on the properties of rotating frames.

“As best demonstrated by Nature in the case of the aero foil maple-seed, today’s propeller is a pressure-screw and therefore a braking screw, whose purpose is to allow the heavy maple-seed to fall parachute-like slowly towards the ground and to be carried away sideways by the wind in the process. No bird has such a whirling thing on its head, nor a fish on its tail. Only man-made use of this natural brake-screw for forward propulsion. As the propeller rotates, so does the resistance rise by the square of the rotational velocity. This is also a sign that this supposed propulsive device is unnaturally constructed and therefore out of place.”
(Viktor Schauberger)

Inertia is a general property of matter within a continuum. Matter does not instantly accelerate towards its projected velocity as ruled by Newtons second law. We can call this a delay in response. People experience this force for instance when an airplane takes off. Also, the Coriolis force is related to the inertia of matter. It is a force that is applied by engineers in for instance venturi’s.

Boundary layer force

One interesting aspect of the continuum assumption is that all matter has no separation and is always connected. We can assume that friction and boundary layers drag force are related to each other. Most fluids, that includes gasses, show a layered composition. Even small differences in temperature, pressure (velocity, hydrostatic paradox) and humidity (gas) will cause a difference in density of matter and therefor a layered composition.

Friction between these layers does generate heat and static electricity. Given the fact that in most case heat is developed, the exchange of parts of the subatomic fields may take place. We cannot exclude that the weak nuclear interaction plays a role in the development of this force.

Dr Nikola Tesla was not the first to discover the properties of boundary layer force. Tesla is the engineer who successfully applied this phenomenon in a turbine engine.

Modern wind turbines perform much better when they are built higher. Due to the boundary layer effect wind speed is decreasing towards the surface the turbine is built on. Also, the flow velocity in rivers is influenced by the riverbed. In this case it has the advantage of less erosion of the riverbed.

Magnetic force

Although magnets and magnetism were studied much earlier, the research of magnetic fields began in 1269 when French scholar Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt mapped out the magnetic field on the surface of a spherical magnet using iron needles. Noting that the resulting field lines crossed at two points he named those points “poles” in analogy to Earth’s poles. He also clearly articulated the principle that magnets always have both a north and south pole, no matter how finely one slices them.

Almost three centuries later, William Gilbert of Colchester replicated Petrus Peregrinus’s work and was the first to state explicitly that Earth is a magnet.[8] Published in 1600, Gilbert’s work, De Magnete, helped to establish magnetism as a science.

In physics (specifically in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force (or electromagnetic force) is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge moving with a velocity in an electric field and a magnetic field experiences a force.

Historians suggest that the law is implicit in a paper by James Clerk Maxwell, published in 1865. Hendrik Lorentz arrived in a complete derivation in 1895, identifying the contribution of the electric force a few years after Oliver Heaviside correctly identified the contribution of the magnetic force.

In general, magnetic forces are very strong on a very short distance.