According to Isaac Asimov it is not eureka that announces a breakthrough discovery.
In this study we have analyzed several strange and almost unbelievable theories in our ‘actual knowledge’ of nature.
1. It was encouraging to find that our actual knowledge of nature can’t tell us a lot about the forces that are responsible for flow of matter like, for instance, wind and water flow, and the tides.
2. An important discovery is that there are well known and respected scientists who are familiar with the fact that in modern physics the excellent work of Sir Isaac Newton is misinterpreted. Even Albert Einstein has mis-interpreted an important part of the works of Newton. Newton’s correspondence with Sir Richard Bentley from 1692 – 1693 is famous among a small group of experts. In one of his four letters Newtons writes to Sir Richard Bentley:
The last clause of the second position I like very well. It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and affect other matter without mutual contact, as it must be, if gravitation in the sense of Epicurus, be essential and inherent in it. And this is one reason why I desired you would not ascribe innate gravity to me. That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left open to the consideration of my readers”
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
3. It means that we can throw away all our books on high school and university physics and start almost all over again! All our ideas about gravity in physics that we have developed over the centuries are invalid!
4. There is no evidence whatsoever that can lead us to the assumption that gravity can exist. On the other hand, there is plenty of evidence that bodies of matter can ‘gravitate’ or ‘levitate’ due to their relative position. Archimedes laws are based on experiments and are still undisputed.
5. Our laws on thermodynamics are often discussed and the combination of force and heat doesn’t make the subject easy to understand. The French engineer Carnot is seen as the founding father of thermodynamics. The difference with Carnot is that he mentions the ‘machine’ as an important part in the flow and efficiency of ‘energy’. Today the ‘machine’ is regarded as a neutral system. That is not correct. Professor Hermann von Helmholtz has defined the ‘machine’ as follows.
….for all purely mechanical, that is to say, for moving forces, all our machinery and apparatus generate no force, but simply yield up the power communicated to them by natural forces, falling water, moving wind, or by the muscles of men and animals.
Professor Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
The introduction of heat engines and fossil fuels has shifted away our attention from this important statement. The ‘Helmholtz definition’ should be adopted in physics as an important law of nature. All mechanical engineers should be familiar with this undisputed law that has been proven by experiment.
It also means that it is time to improve on the laws on thermodynamics.
6. The question is: ‘if not’, ‘what else’? It is also remarkable that a select group of respected and leading scientists define our planet earth as a perfect continuum. For these scientists it is not even an assumption. It is a fact! It is a law of nature proven by the oldest disciplines in physics, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Disciplines that are completely based on the mother science ‘continuum mechanics’.
“Modelling an object as a continuum assumes that the substances the object is composed of completely fills the space it occupies. Modelling objects in this way ignores the fact that matter is made of atoms. Materials such as solids, liquids and gasses, are composed of molecules separated by ‘empty space’. Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials modelled as a continuous mass. The physical space in which we live is truly a continuum”.
(Professor G.T. Mase, Professor G.E. Mase, ‘continuum mechanics for engineers’)
Professor Clemens Kleinstreuer, NCSU, in his book “Modern Fluid Dynamics”, confirms this law of nature that is ruling all physics.
Professor Andrew Janiak, DUKE University, is a worldwide recognized expert on the work of Isaac Newton. The works of Janiak are a pleasure to read and he is a great lecturer.
Continuum mechanics is the blend of physics and mathematics that describes how matter in different states, i.e. solid, liquid, and gas, responds to mechanical and thermal forcing. It is a rather pure discipline with resource issues generally emerging in engineering contexts where the mathematical-physics laws are basically well understood.
(Professor William I Newman, author of the book ‘Continuum mechanics in the Earth Sciences’)
Source: Kleinstreuer, modern fluid dynamics
7. Assuming that planet earth is a true continuum has a lot of consequences for governing scientific theories. As mentioned before two of the oldest disciplines in physics, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, are completely governed by continuum mechanics. “Fortunately, most systems are governed by continuum mechanics laws” (Professor Clement Kleinstreuer) A continuum can only exist when outside its physical boundaries is no ‘environment’ at all (a void) except electromagnetic radiation. Sir Isaac Newton’s first law is based on this assumption. It means that in terms of a ‘unified theory’, we might have to return to the ‘theory of electrons’ from Professor Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and move away from ‘the theory of general relativity’ from Albert Einstein.
8. The continuum assumption defines a general conservative force in nature that has no name)! This force rules all mechanical motion in nature. Primo mobile would be a nice name for this force.
9. Isaac Newton’s laws on motion are both simple and brilliant says MIT professor Walter Lewin. It is strange that very few scientists understand that Newton’s laws can be applied for both inside and outside the continuum. Newton’s laws are, in combination with the continuum assumption, very much alive.
10. It is strange that a really strong force within the continuum that’s applied in all kind of machines and in construction is called a ‘pseudo force’.
11. If the equation E=m.c2 is true, it is unclear why we assume that materials have a certain mass. We know that having mass depends on position. It is unclear how electromagnetic formations (fields) can turn into mass. Continuum mechanics explains why bodies of matter don’t have mass and only can have a certain density.
12. Continuum mechanics also explains why gravitational pull on mass, bodies have no mass, can’t be true.
Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.
- “An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external and unbalanced force. An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external and unbalanced force”
In an exact original 1792 translation (from Latin) Newton’s Second Law of Motion reads:
- “LAW II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed. — If a force generates a motion, a double force will generate double the motion, a triple force triple the motion, whether that force be impressed altogether and at once, or gradually and successively. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force), if the body moved before, is added to or subtracted from the former motion, according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other; or obliquely joined, when they are oblique, so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both.”
Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.
- All forces occur in pairs, and these two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Newton’s laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years, and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. Newton’s laws of motion, together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus, provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena.
In quantum mechanics, concepts such as force, momentum, and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. At speeds that are much lower than the speed of light, Newton’s laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. At speeds comparable to the speed of light, the second law holds in the original form F = dp / dt, which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time.