- The zeroth law of thermodynamics may be stated in the following form:If two systems are both in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
- The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed.For a thermodynamic process without transfer of matter.
- The second law of thermodynamics indicates the irreversibility of natural processes.In many cases, the tendency of natural processes to lead towards spatial homogeneity of matter and energy, and especially of temperature. It can be formulated in a variety of interesting and important ways.It implies the existence of a quantity called the entropy of a thermodynamic system. In terms of this quantity it implies that:
When two initially isolated systems in separate but nearby regions of space, each in thermodynamic equilibrium with itself but not necessarily with each other, are then allowed to interact, they will eventually reach a mutual thermodynamic equilibrium. The sum of the entropies of the initially isolated systems is less than or equal to the total entropy of the final combination. Equality occurs just when the two original systems have all their respective intensive variables (temperature, pressure) equal; then the final system also has the same values.
- The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows:The entropy of a perfect crystal of any pure substance approaches zero as the temperature approaches absolute zero.At zero temperature the system must be in a state with the minimum thermal energy. This statement holds true if the perfect crystal has only one state with minimum energy.
Professor Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) participated in two of the most significant developments in physics and in the philosophy of science in the 19th century: the proof that Euclidean geometry does not describe the only possible visualizable and physical space, and the shift from physics based on actions between particles at a distance to the field theory. Helmholtz achieved a staggering number of scientific results, including the formulation of energy conservation, the vortex equations for fluid dynamics, the notion of free energy in thermodynamics, and the invention of the ophthalmoscope. His constant interest in the epistemology of science guarantees his enduring significance for philosophy. (Professor Lydia Patton in her bibliography, 2008, on Hermann von Helmholtz)
On the 23rd of July in 1847, Helmholtz gave an address, “The Conservation of Force,” at the Physical Society. “Force” [Kraft], as Helmholtz uses it, is equivalent to the modern term “energy.” Helmholtz’s address was very well received by the Society, but Helmholtz was forced to publish it as a pamphlet after Poggendorff rejected it for his Annalen as too speculative.
Helmholtz summarizes his conclusions in the essay as follows:
The deduction of the propositions contained in the memoir may be based on either of two maxims; either on the maxim that it is not possible by any combination whatever of natural bodies to derive an unlimited amount of mechanical force, or on the assumption that all actions in nature can be ultimately referred to attractive or repulsive forces, the intensity of which depends solely on the distances between the points at which the forces are exerted. That both these propositions are identical is shown at the commencement of the memoir itself (Helmholtz 1853 , 114–115; cited in Königsberger 1906, 39).
…for all of this is purely mechanical, that is to say, for the moving forces, all of our machinery and apparatuses generate no force, but simply yield the power provided to them by natural forces, falling water, moving wind or by the muscles of men and animals.
Professor Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
Energy is the capability of mass (sticky, solid, fluid, gasses, atomic etc.) to supply work under the influence of a force (gravitation, inertia, contraction, magnetism, buoyancy, tide, wind, waves etc.)
Professor Dr H. Püning.
Grundzüge der Physik, Zum Gebrauche für die mittleren Klassen höherer Lehranstalten bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. H. Püning, Siebente Auflage. Ausgabe für Realschulen, Münster i.W. 1902. Druck und Verlag der Aschendorffschen Buchhandlung.
Source: University Kaiserslautern
Quote from “Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis” (1758):
“It will be found that everything depends on the composition of the forces with which these particles of matter act upon one another: and from these forces, as a matter of fact, all phenomena of nature take their origin”.
Ruđer Josip Bošković (1711-1787)
Boscovich, Roger Joseph Jesuit mathematician and scientist. Born in Dubrovnik of Serbian and Italian parents, Rudjer Josip Bosšković was educated at Rome, and became professor of mathematics at the Collegium Romanum in 1740. He contributed extensively to different branches of mathematics and physics, but his philosophical fame rests on Philosophiae Naturalis Theoria Redacta ad Unicam Legem Virium in Natura Existentium (‘A Theory of Natural Philosophy Reduced to a Single Law of the Actions Existing in Nature’, 1758, trs. as Theory of Natural Philosophy, 1922). In this work Boscovich rejects the corpuscular theory that bases physics on the actions of impenetrable, inelastic, solid, massy atoms. Instead, following some of Leibniz’s objections to this conception, he develops a theory of puncta, or point particles, interacting with each other according to an oscillatory law. There is nothing to the existence of a point particle except the kinematic forces with which it is associated. Boscovich’s views were influential on scientists such as Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell and provided a forerunner of modern field theories.
The laws on thermodynamics are written from the perspective of a physicist. The laws have not much value in engineering. Thomas Kuhn rightfully criticized the development of thermodynamics.
For engineers the ‘laws’ of Von Helmholtz and Püning have much more value. In fact, the laws of thermodynamics are a hindrance for the development of machines (engines) that can generate renewable electricity and force.
Isolated systems can’t exist in nature for they are fully integrated with their surroundings (continuum). There is no proof that heat can be contained in a system.
As heat is no energy the laws on thermodynamics should be reconsidered and brought in line with ‘Von Helmholtz / Püning’. This will result in the assumption that all dynamic systems are open dynamic systems were the natural process is still irreversible and force can’t either be created nor destroyed.
For centuries engineers are already building ‘open dynamic systems’. Ships and airplanes are two perfect examples. Open dynamic systems are much more complicated while all the forces that are working on the machine and the development of force during operation have to be considered. Airplanes would not work well if during operation forces like ‘drag force’ was not activated. This type of force has to be considered as an input force to the system.
Mechanical engineers have proven that Professor Richard Feynman is right. If the engineer demonstrates that the machine, reproducible, works according the laws in nature the engineer is always right. Even in case that physicists fail to formulate the laws or don’t understand yet the laws of nature.
Given the circumstances that the continuum assumption and open thermodynamic systems opens a whole new window for our understanding of nature, that hopefully will lead to a new integrated theory of everything.
As Isaac Newtons would have said: ‘I will leave that to my readers’.