Ships, airplanes, trains, trucks, and cars are well known examples. From a mechanical engineering point of view the main difference between internal combustion engines and the electric motor is the torque characteristic. Electric motors supply their maximum torque at low rotation speeds were internal combustion engines start producing maximum torque at much higher rotation speeds.
Future development of hybrid systems will most likely run parallel with the introduction of friction free electromagnetic gear technology.
The MDV1 is equipped with a diesel electric power train. High torque output at low rotation speed allows for a much larger propeller than usual. This results in significantly reduced fuel consumption.
The next step in motive power generation is the replacement of the diesel internal combustion engine by a series of non-combustion reaction turbines. A reaction turbine is a blend of a chemical reactor and a turbine engine that can generate torque from the elastic properties of regenerative matter like R744 and oil-water emulsions.
This system can also be used in large airliners. Airliners with zero emission (except sound) propulsion. Airliners that no longer carry fuel.
The size of large (15.000 TEU) container ships makes it possible to install a series of non-combustion liquid piston engines for the generation of electricity.
One of the most important developments for motive systems is the development of ultra-capacitors. At this moment the development of ultra-capacitors is closely linked with the development of graphene. Research on ultra-capacitor is still ongoing. In combination with the right production system for electricity, ultra-capacitors can be charged in seconds.
Ultra-capacitors will be indispensable in the electrification of mover systems, like airplanes, buses, trucks and cars.