Easy read

Nature is complex but perfect!

Science is the profession that tries to find out how nature really works. Scientists are not always sure if they are right. In that case they promote a theory on what they think is true. Too many theories has turned science into a dangerous minefield.

In the old days the Greeks clearly saw three types of knowledge. And these types of knowledge still exist!

  • “Knowing why” they called episteme,
  • “Knowing how” what they called techne (creativity),
  • “Practical wisdom” what they called phronesis.

Sustainable development requires a change of the scientific community in a way that all humans can rely on scientific resolutions as the premium knowledge over politics. Therefor science has to change. Nobody can do that better, smarter and faster than science itself.

The whole concept of what we call ‘energy’ is based on a natural miracle. The miracle of muscles. Muscles make man and animals strong and mobile.

People and animals became even stronger when six simple machines were invented.

The search by mankind for artificial strength is ongoing for centuries. For the last 100 years mankind found a solution by applying biomass. Biomass that easily can be burned. The heat as well as the elasticity of the explosion are used to create motive power by means of machines.

Like nature is using the heat of solar radiation. Humans know how to use heat for controlling the temperature in our buildings. We know how to use heat in all kind of industrial processes. And we also know how to use heat for the production of electricity.

We know how to control the elasticity of matter after explosion. Combustion engines are widely used for transferring the forces of explosion to machines like boats, trucks, planes and cars. Or how to use these forces for the production of electricity.

Electricity is one of the greatest discoveries of mankind. Electricity is no energy; it is a state of transformation of force. By means of electricity we are able to apply force at a distance. Electricity travels super-fast. At the end of the line we have the equipment to store electricity (battery) or to create light out of it (light bulb, LED). But we can also transfer it into heat. Most of the times we turn electricity back into force by means of an electromotor.

We are running out of suitable biomass like oil, coal and natural gas, but we are also aware that burning biomass is incredibly harmful for our health and for earth’s climate. Also, the exploration and production of fossil fuels harms the environment we live in.

Creative people have always searched for alternative methods. Over the last 50 years we also see scientist look into the problem. Big energy companies have always looked over their shoulder to make sure that they don’t miss anything. Scientists have never found a better alternative. There was nothing to worry about for the industry. Energy is a booming business. Not only for industries, also for governments who collect taxes on energy.

That’s € a year only in the European Union!

Ten years ago it became serious, people started to blame the industry for being responsible for climate change. A new renewable energy industry was born. An industry that believed that they could change the energy market with old technology that was abandoned earlier in history for obvious reasons. It is a new rather naive industry that runs on subsidies and high hopes.

The new industry does not scare the old business. The old industry has the strength to switch to nuclear power generation. Nuclear power is not clean. It is true that no by products like CO2, NOx and PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) are released in the environment we all live in, but the nuclear waste problem is hard to solve and is very dangerous problem. The nuclear energy system is a huge heating system of the lower atmosphere of the planet.

Is global warming not the battle that we are fighting?

So, are we lost? No off course not! We can always rely on nature and on human creativity.

For some strange reason we love nature with our heart and not with our head. Most people believe that humans are an outside agency of nature. That we don’t depend on nature and just live our lives while controlling nature. Humans do have control over nature but unfortunately in a devastating, a destructive way.

People are totally dependent on nature. We need food and water. Nothing else than nature is able to supply that. Humans are a fully integrated part of nature, breathing its oxygen from air, exchanging heat with other matter.
A good reason why we should better take care of nature and don’t destroy important compartments, like soil, oceans, space and forests. The extensive use of pesticides destroys insect life and will at the end destroy us all.

A new chapter

If we don’t want to burn nature’s biomass any longer and we don’t want to be frightened for nuclear accidents and waste, we have to write a new chapter in the history of energy.

The fossil fuel and nuclear industries have never showed interest in ‘energy for all’ because not all people can pay for the supply of energy. That is about the same attitude as the building industry, who does not show interest in affordable housing for all. And even worse, water companies who have never been able to provide all world citizens with clean potable water.

The new energy chapter is therefore a really big thing!

In this study energy is regarded as a social problem. “One for four and more…” is the principle that “One”, renewable electricity, is able to solve “four” huge social problems.

Energy, clean water, hunger and climate change. And even more…….!

In this project we started to solve the question why everything in nature is moving without the need to plug in.

The American professor Richard Feynman, the winner of the Nobel Prize, made a very strong statement:

“It doesn’t matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn’t matter how smart you are. If it doesn’t agree with experiment, it’s wrong”.

It teaches us that that we can approach the ‘energy’ problem from two different directions. First the approach from science, physics that relies on theories, observation and experiment. And second the approach from mechanical engineers who only rely on observation and the experiment.

Design thinking is the process for thinking about whole new possibilities. Every positive outcome is always unbelievable.

“Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work” – Thomas A Edison.

For great discoveries you don’t have to know anything about physics. It is okay if experiment proves that you are right.

The questions are: why buildings stand firm; why do boats float; why can airplanes fly; why do rivers flow; why do planets don’t leave their track and why do heavy things fall and light things rise. What powers the main current in our oceans and why do we have tides?

The answer is simple, it is the ‘continuum assumption’, the missing piece in energy science. Not a missing piece in certain scientific disciplines, because a small select group of top scientists are well aware of the continuum assumption.

In this study we find no logical match between ‘force’ and ‘heat’. The new chapter on ‘energy’ can result in a new approach. An approach where force is energy and heat just heat. This will result in improved laws on thermodynamics.

Continuum mechanics does require an improvement of the present laws on thermodynamics. These laws deal with ‘isolated systems’ were ‘open systems’ are required and are already widely applied in all kind of machines.

Only open thermodynamic systems can explain why everything in nature is in motion without plugging in or fueling up.

Continuum mechanics

“Modelling an object as a continuum assumes that the substances the object is composed of completely fills the space it occupies. Modelling objects in this way ignores the fact that matter is made of atoms. Materials such as solids, liquids and gasses, are composed of molecules separated by ‘empty space’. Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials modelled as a continuous mass. The physical space in which we live is truly a continuum”.
(Professor G.T. Mase, Professor G.E. Mase, ‘continuum mechanics for engineers’)

Continuum mechanics is the blend of physics and mathematics that describes how matter in different states, i.e. solid, liquid, and gas, responds to mechanical and thermal forcing. It is a rather pure discipline with resource issues generally emerging in engineering contexts where the mathematical-physics laws are basically well understood. 
(Professor William I Newman, author of the book ‘Continuum mechanics in the Earth Sciences’)

Continuum mechanics is a very complex natural system. It is a system that is widely overlooked by scientists and mechanical engineers.

The continuum supplies mechanical engineers abundant renewable forces for the input in new types of engines.

Engines that are able to generate renewable electricity for all. There is a limit in the strength of the forces, not on the available amount of forces. Conservative force are the desired forces.

Continuum mechanics is a general principle of how nature works on every spot on this planet. This means that without the need for additional infrastructure input forces are readily available for everybody.

This also means that future renewable energy will get a new owner.

Final engineering can start!

Engineering can start with two of the most desirable non-combustion engines.

The principle of energy generation is simple.

  • There is always a need for input force (forces from the continuum)
  • Second, we need a machine that is able to receive the input forces and transform them into rotational force. Also called torque.
  • The machine is driving a generator or a pump. The generator is a rotor and stator that creates a strong electromagnetic field. This is the way how electricity is born, ready for transformation and distribution through wiring. Both pumps and generators need force to overcome the reaction force.

Liquid piston engine

The liquid piston engine is one of the novel non-combustion engines in a wider range of new technologies. The engine is showed here in combination with a big truck while the principles that are applied by the mechanical engineer are about the same.

The liquid piston engine is an engine that is based on the principle of maintained continuous elastic collision of matter.
The continuous elastic collision in the picture is maintained by the basketball player.

Reaction turbine

The reaction turbine utilizes all the magnificent properties of a rotating frame of matter. The turbine engine is in fact a continuum inside a continuum.

Inertia of liquids and pressure change play a decisive role in the operation of this novel non-combustion turbine engine. The liquid for operation is stored inside the turbine housing and is continuously reused for operation. No emissions, no need for refill. Maintenance is needed.

Both water and liquid carbon dioxide are without any doubt the liquids that will support the need for future renewable energy. Oil in water emulsions are also a great option. Liquid carbon dioxide, known as R744, has almost ideal properties.

Where and how to use these new engines?

The liquid piston engine can be applied for:

  • What is standing firm on the ground,
    • Electrification of cities and villages
    • Electrification of all industries, including heavy industry and data industry
    • Electrification of all public utilities
    • Pumping action of all liquids
  • What is floating on water,
    • Powering large container ships

The reaction turbine engine can be applied for:

  • What is standing firm on the ground,
    • Electrification of houses
    • Electrification of all other buildings and businesses
    • Pumping action for all liquids
  • What has wheels,
    • Powering automobiles, cars
    • Powering trucks, busses, trains, trams
  • What is floating on water,
    • Powering boats and ships
  • What flies in the air,
    • Powering airplanes

In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver that power to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials, and the final drive, propeller, etc. Hybrid powertrains also include one or more electric traction motors that operate to drive the vehicle wheels.

The new type powertrains will look like this:

  • Engine – pump
  • Engine – generator – power grid – application
  • Engine – generator – ultra capacitors – application
  • Engine – generator – ultra capacitors – lithium battery – application
  • Engine – generator – ultra capacitors – lithium battery – magnetic gear system – application.

The application of ultra-capacitors have the advantage of ‘KERS’, kinetic energy recovery. KERS systems offer also the possibility for new braking systems for vehicles. Both disk brakes and rubber tyres do generate substantial amounts of fine dust emissions.

Social engineering, the transformation of human conditions

Professor James C. Scott published his magnificent book “Seeing Like a State, How Certain Schemes to Improve Human Condition Have Failed” (March 1998). The book is a magnificent review of the past 20th century. Scott criticizes a system of believes he calls ‘high modernism’.

The book is about our ability to design and operate society in accordance with scientific laws. Professor Scott identified four reasons for this failure:

1. The “administrative ordering of nature and society.”

2. A “confidence about scientific and technical progress” that leads to the conclusion that science comprehends all knowledge and therefore maximizes all productivity”. Scott calls this “high-modernist ideology”.

3. “An authoritarian state that is willing and able to use the full weight of its coercive power.”

4. “A prostrate civil society that lacks the capacity to resist these plans.”

Both novel engines will help transforming the world into a zero-emission renewable energy world. Continuum mechanics is more than an energy transition. It means affordable renewable energy for all.

And last but not least it will mean a worldwide transition of ownership of resources. The whole energy business will change from combined government – big corporate ownership into ‘user ownership’ of private communities and small business.

If this new transition of ownership is able to avoid ‘bigness’ and to keep the cost of electricity as low as possible, billions of new sustainable jobs will be created by millions of creative people.

The people and SME’s (small and medium enterprise) are ready to make an important step towards sustainable development.

Can’t wait to build and demonstrate both engine’s! And more…

In nature, everything is real, theories don’t exist. Why do we have them? I can’t get it out of my mind that continuum mechanics has always been available in nature!
(Rob Leegwater 2020)